Argan Oil

Used traditionally in Northwest Africa for its cosmetic, bactericidal, and fungicidal activity.

• Rich in vitamin E, oleic acid, and linoleic acid, which is believed to contribute to the perceived cutaneous benefits of this vegetable oil.

• Reputed to impart antiacne, antisebum, anti-aging, moisturizing, and wound-healing activity, but clinical evidence is sparse.

• In a small study, the nightly topical application of argan oil resulted in a moisturizing effect, and in statistically significant decreases in transepidermal water loss and increases in the water content of the epidermis.

For more than 800 years, native Moroccans and explorers in the region have cited the health benefits of the topical use or consumption of argan oil.1 The oil, derived from the fruit ofArgania spinosa, is a slow-growing tree native to the arid climate of Southwestern Morocco2-4 as well as the Algerian province of Tindouf in the Western Mediterranean area.5 For many years, it was primarily the populations of the Essaouira and Souss-Massa-Draa regions of Morocco that benefited from the production and use of argan oil.6 Largely through the efforts of the Moroccan government, as well as cooperating nongovernmental organizations and private entities, argan oil is now also a well-established ingredient on the edible oil as well as cosmetic oil markets throughout the world.6

Traditionally, the vegetable oil has been prescribed for reputed cosmetic, bactericidal, and fungicidal properties and as a treatment for infertility and heart disease.3,4 In fact, investigations related to the cardiovascular benefits of virgin argan oil consumption have suggested antiatherogenic, cholesterol-lowering, antiproliferative, and antioxidant benefits.7-11

The vitamin E–rich oil has a reputation for imparting antiaging, hydrating, and antioxidant activity to the skin and ameliorating conditions such as acne, eczema, psoriasis, wrinkles, and xerosis,12 and, in fact, has been used to treat these conditions as well as dry hair,3,13 hair loss, skin inflammation, and joint pain.3 This column will focus on the topical uses of this botanical that has been dubbed “liquid gold.”12

Chemistry

Oleic acid, an omega-9 monounsaturated fatty acid, is abundant in argan oil (43%-49%) and has been found to act as a penetration enhancer by disturbing the skin barrier.14,15Linoleic acid, an omega-6 polyunsaturated fatty acid, found in concentrations of 29%-36% in the oil, is integral in the biosynthesis of inflammatory prostaglandins through the arachidonic acid pathway.4,16 The presence of a linoleic acid may help prevent or mitigate inflammation. Linoleic acid is also a component of ceramide 1 linoleate, which is diminished in dry skin. Topical application of linoleic acid can raise ceramide 1 linoleate levels in the skin, thus reducing xerosis.17Argan oil also contains the saturated fatty acids palmitic acid (11%-15%) and stearic acid (4%-7%).2

Though argan oil is mainly composed of unsaturated fatty acids (80%),1,18,19 the unsaponifiable fraction (1%) is replete with antioxidants, including sterols, saponins, and polyphenols.4,19 The polyphenolic constituents, primarily gamma-tocopherol, which is considered the most efficient among the tocopherols at scavenging free radicals, are thought to account for the antioxidant effects of argan oil.1,2,18,20,21

Topical uses

Unroasted kernels are used to produce cosmetic grade argan oil, which is used in moisturizing creams, body lotions, and shampoos.2 Although argan oil contains components that have antioxidant and anti-inflammatory features and there are many patents on the use of argan oil in skin care, there is a dearth of published research studies looking at the effect of argan oil–containing skin care products on aging, inflamed, or dry skin. A study by Dobrev evaluated the efficacy of a sebum control cream composed of saw palmetto extract, sesame seeds, and argan oil applied twice daily to the face over a period of 4 weeks in 20 healthy volunteers, 16 with oily skin and 4 with combination skin. All volunteers tolerated the product. A visible sebum-regulating or antisebum efficacy was observed in 95% of the subjects. Clinical evaluation scores and casual sebum levels decreased significantly after 1 month of treatment. Dobrev concluded that this argan oil-containing formulation was efficacious in lessening the greasiness and improving the appearance of oily facial skin.22

aragon-fruitShown is Argania Spinosa fruit, the source of argan oil.

In 2014, Tichota et al. created a topical argan oil nanostructured lipid carrier formulation to enhance skin hydration and tested it in a single-blind controlled trial with healthy volunteers over a 1-month period. The investigators observed that nanostructured lipid carrier entrapment in the hydrogel formulation did not have an impact on colloidal size or occlusion, and, clinically, skin hydration was improved in the participants, suggesting the effectiveness of argan oil as a liquid lipid for this indication.23

Early in 2015, Boucetta et al. reported on their study of the effects on skin elasticity of the daily application or consumption of argan oil in 60 postmenopausal women. During a 60-day period, the treatment group of 30 subjects consumed dietary argan oil; the 30 members in the control group received olive oil. Both groups also applied topical argan oil to the left volar forearm. Skin parameters, including gross skin elasticity, net elasticity, and biologic elasticity, improved significantly with both oral and topical treatments. The researchers concluded that argan oil use confers an antiaging effect to the skin through enhanced elasticity.24Boucetta and another team previously showed that daily consumption or topical application of argan oil in postmenopausal women yielded significant reductions in transepidermal water loss and significant increases in epidermal water content, suggesting that the botanical agent ameliorates skin hydration by reviving barrier function and preserving the water-holding capacity.25 The same team also demonstrated in 30 healthy postmenopausal women that the nightly topical application of argan oil over a 2-month period yielded a moisturizing effect, with statistically significant reductions in transepidermal water loss and statistically significant increases in the water content of the epidermis observed.26

As a cosmetic agent, argan oil, which is popular in France, Japan, and North America, is touted for hydrating and revitalizing the skin, treating acne, and imparting shine to the hair. The therapeutic activities of topical argan oil are reputed to be antiacne, antisebum, anti-aging, moisturizing, and wound healing, but such claims are based on traditional uses with only a small body of supportive clinical evidence.2,27

Generally, argan oil prices are as high as $40/100 mL in the European, Japanese, and American markets.27 Topical argan oil has been characterized as having a brief shelf-life of approximately 3-4 months.2,28 A 2014 report on a 1-year study of the oxidative stability of cosmetic argan oil by Gharby et al. found that argan oil quality remains satisfactory when stored at 25° C and protected from sunlight, but storage should not exceed 6 months to meet industrial standards. A rapid loss of quality was seen when argan oil was stored at 40° C.29

Conclusion

Although clinical research data on argan oil are limited, its traditional uses and inclusion in novel cosmetic products suggest that further study is warranted. Randomized controlled trials are needed to elucidate cutaneous benefits, if any, from this rare botanical.

1. J Pharm Pharmacol. 2010 Dec;62(12):1669-75.

2. Altern Med Rev. 2011 Sep;16(3):275-9.

3. J Ethnopharmacol. 1999 Oct;67(1):7-14.

4. Pharmacol Res. 2006 Jul;54(1):1-5.

5. Nutr Rev. 2012 May;70(5):266-79.

6. Eur J Lipid Sci Technol. 2014 Oct;116(10):1316-21.

7. Ann Nutr Metab. 2005 May-Jun;49(3):196-201.

8. Nutr Metab Cardiovasc Dis. 2005 Oct;15(5):352-60.

9. Evid Based Complement Alternat Med. 2006 Sep;3(3):317-27.

10. Cancer Invest. 2006 Oct;24(6):588-92.

11. Cancer Detect Prev. 2007;31(1):64-9.

12. “Liquid Gold in Morocco,” by Amy Larocca, The New York Times, Nov. 18, 2007.

13. Phytomedicine. 2010 Feb;17(2):157-60.

14. J Control Release. 1995;37(3):299-306.

15. Thermochimica Acta. 1997 Jun;293:77-85.

16. Prostaglandins Leukot Essent Fatty Acids. 1995 Jun;52(6):387-91.

17. Int J Cosmet Sci. 1996 Feb;18(1):1-12.

18. Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr. 2010 May;50(5):473-7.

19. Eur J Cancer Prev. 2003 Feb;12(1):67-75.

20. Fitoterapia. 2008 Jul;79(5):337-44.

21. Am J Clin Nutr. 2001 Dec;74(6):714-22.

22. J Cosmet Dermatol. 2007;6(2):113-8.

23. Int J Nanomedicine. 2014 Aug 11;9:3855-64.

24. Clin Interv Aging. 2015 Jan 30;10:339-49.

25. Prz Menopauzalny. 2014 Oct;13(5):280-8.

26. Skin Res Technol. 2013;19:356-7.

27. Inflamm Allergy Drug Targets. 2014;13(3):168-76.

28. Nat Prod Commun. 2010 Nov;5(11):1799-802.

29. J Cosmet Sci. 2014 Mar-Apr;65(2):81-7.

Dr. Baumann is the CEO of Baumann Cosmetic & Research Institute in Miami. She founded the Cosmetic Dermatology Center at the University of Miami in 1997. She is the author of “Cosmetic Dermatology: Principles and Practice” (New York: McGraw-Hill, 2002), and a book for consumers, “The Skin Type Solution,” (New York: Bantam Dell, 2006). Her latest book, “Cosmeceuticals and Cosmetic Ingredients” (McGraw-Hill) was published in November 2014. Dr. Baumann has received funding for clinical grants from Allergan, Aveeno, Avon Products, Evolus, Galderma, GlaxoSmithKline, Kythera, Mary Kay, Medicis Pharmaceuticals, Neutrogena, Philosophy, Topix Pharmaceuticals, and Unilever. She also develops and owns the Baumann Skin Type Solution skin typing solutions and related products.

Advertisements

Leave a Reply

Please log in using one of these methods to post your comment:

WordPress.com Logo

You are commenting using your WordPress.com account. Log Out / Change )

Twitter picture

You are commenting using your Twitter account. Log Out / Change )

Facebook photo

You are commenting using your Facebook account. Log Out / Change )

Google+ photo

You are commenting using your Google+ account. Log Out / Change )

Connecting to %s